Here is a brief timeline of important events that have shaped the country of Egypt; the focus here will be geared towards recent events (from 100 years ago or so), located towards the bottom, but we’ll begin with more ancient events first.
7000 BCE – First settlement of Nile region.
3000 BCE – Upper and Lower Egyptian Kingdoms combine.
332 BCE – Alexander the Great conquers Egypt, founds Alexandria.
969 CE – Cairo becomes capital.
1869 – Suez Canal completed.
1882 – Egypt taken over by the British.
1954 – British completely leave Egypt.
1967 – Tensions with Israel cause Israel to strike and seize Sinai Peninsula.
1981 – Hosni Mubarak assumes leadership.
2011 – Mubarak steps down during “Arab Spring.”
2014 – New constitution, which bans political parties based on religion.